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Dr. Robin Jarquin Speaks with El sitio Avícola for an Interview on Sustainable Production Effeciency

We recently conducted a highly informative Q&A session with El Sitio Avícola. Robin Jarquin, Amlan’s Director of Sales for Latin America, discussed pivotal strategies for optimizing poultry gut health with Calibrin-Z®, Varium®, and Phylox®. Want to learn more about sustainable solutions and productivity enhancement? Click to read more

Understand How Calibrin®-Z Controls T-2 Toxin in Broilers

Poultry producers mostly know T-2 toxin by the horrific lesions seen on the beaks of poultry. The fast-acting T-2 toxin has a major impact on the growth and performance of poultry and livestock. Luckily it is not the most common trichothecenes toxin produced by Fusarium molds, deoxynivalenol would fill that spot, but T-2 is considered the most toxic of the trichothecenes. This poison can be inhaled or adsorbed through the skin or the gastro-intestinal tract and causes multiple problems in poultry and livestock. A short list of problems includes decreased gain and feed efficiency, decreased egg production and hatchability, decreased immune function, and increased mortality. It has been shown to have a synergistic negative effect with other mycotoxins in the diet or when administered in conjunction with lipopolysaccharide (aka LPS). This may be one reason why there is additional negative impact when there is a co-challenge with T-2 and gram-negative bacteria. Control of other dietary mycotoxins or LPS concurrently with T-2 may be important in any attempt to decrease its effects.   


T-2 toxin decreases the productivity of poultry and livestock by inhibiting protein synthesis at the cellular level and causing cell death. In eukaryotic cell’s DNA, RNA, and protein, synthesis is inhibited by T-2 toxin. It also induces apoptosis or programmed cell death.

A major concern in poultry is how T-2 affects the gastrointestinal tract starting with lesions of the beak and gizzard and going through the entire gut. These lesions will affect feed intake, gain, and feed efficiency. But T-2 can affect all aspects of production and reproduction, so egg production and hatchability also need to be considered. In early research looking at the effects of T-2 on hatchability, 2 ppm of T-2 toxin was fed to laying hens, egg production decreased by 3.8 percent, fertility of the eggs that were laid decreased by 1.7 percent, and hatchability of fertile eggs decreased by 5.6 percent. This is a substantial loss of hatched chicks because of the toxin in the feed.

T-2 is quickly adsorbed. And it can be adsorbed through the lungs, the skin, or through the gastrointestinal tract when ingested in the feed. Approximately 90% of T-2 is adsorbed into the body within 30 minutes of ingestion, but it does have a short half-life of less than 20 minutes. T-2 producing Fusarium molds can occur in feedstuffs either during a warm and moist growing season or during storage under high moisture, especially if stored grains have damage such as broken or cracked kernels. The best option for producers is to use feedstuffs free of all toxins, however, the reality is that this is not always possible. In those cases where feedstuffs are being fed that may contain T-2 it would be beneficial to have a fast-acting toxin binder in the diets.   

Because T-2 is so damaging and so rapidly absorbed, the toxin binder that is used needs to work and work fast. Calibrin®Z, available in select international markets, adsorbed ~70% of T-2 toxin within 1 minute in research looking at speed-of-binding in vitro. This was approximately 24 times faster than the other products used in the trial. Additionally, Calibrin-Z had previously been shown to bind other mycotoxins and LPS in vitro and in vivo, which may be important during a T-2 challenge. A test to determine the binding ability of Calibrin-Z in vitro was conducted to look at seven common fungal biotoxins where the binder-to-toxin ratio was as if there was 1 kg of Calibrin-Z per metric ton of feed vs. observed concentrations of mycotoxins in feed. In vitro data showed that Calibrin-Z could bind LPS, but it has also been seen in vivo when Calibrin-Z was being fed to laying hens.

Calibrin-Z Mitigates the Effects of T-2 Toxin in Broiler Chicks

Recently, research was conducted at a large university in Brazil to determine the effects of Calibrin-Z on broiler chickens challenged with dietary T-2 Toxin. For this experiment, a total of 180 one-day-old male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were used. At the beginning of the trial the birds had an average body weight of 47 grams, with the average initial weight for each bird being equal. They were fed three different treatments 1) Unchallenged Control; 2) Challenged Control with 2 ppm T-2 Toxin; and 3) 2 ppm T-2 Toxin with 0.5% dietary Calibrin-Z. They were fed the treatment diets for 21 days. No aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, T- 2 Toxin or zearalenone were detected in the feed ingredients that were tested before mixing the diets. The T-2 Toxin that was added to the feed for the challenged treatments was produced by Fusarium sporotrichioides fungi, and was 82% T-2 Toxin, 18% HT-2 Toxin.  There were 6 pens that were randomly assigned to each treatment and there were 10 chicks in each pen. Chicks had free access to a constant supply of food and water. The diet was corn-soybean meal-based and formulated according to requirements in the Cobb Broiler Management Guide.  

The intent of the study was to determine the effect of T-2 toxin on growth performance of broilers and how the addition of Calibrin-Z helped to mitigate any negative effects. Calibrin-Z is a unique calcium montmorillonite that has been shown to bind toxins, both fungal and bacterial, as well as lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

Feeding Calibrin-Z to the birds challenged with T-2 toxin increased body weight by 5% compared to the birds that were fed diets with T-2 toxin and no Calibrin-Z. This improvement returned body weight to that of the unchallenged control birds. In this experiment, there was no effect of feeding T-2 on feed intake with birds on all three treatments having equal feed intake.

Because there was no difference in feed intake the feed conversion ratio followed the same pattern seen in body weight. Feeding Calibrin-Z to birds challenged with T-2 toxin improved feed conversion by 8 points, with values of 1.50 for Calibrin-Z fed birds compared to 1.58 for birds that only received T-2 toxin in the feed.

While aflatoxin is the mycotoxin best known for its negative effects on the liver, T-2 toxin can also have bad effects. In this study, relative liver weight was higher in the challenged control, 3.33%, compared to the unchallenged control, 2.84%, but feeding Calibrin-Z again mitigated the negative effect of the T-2 toxin, with challenged birds fed Calibrin-Z having a relative liver weight of 2.96%.   

T-2 Toxin is a fast-acting mycotoxin that has a tremendous impact on animal performance. It acts in a synergistic way with challenges from other mycotoxins and lipopolysaccharide. To decrease its impact, you need a fast-acting toxin binder to control T-2 quickly while also controlling other potential problems. Calibrin-Z is a fast-acting multi-toxin binder that has proven results.   

As the animal health business of Oil-Dri® Corporation of America, Amlan products are backed by Oil-Dri’s 80-plus years of mineral science expertise. Oil-Dri and Amlan are vertically integrated and own every step of the production process to consistently deliver safe, high-quality animal health products around the world. Calibrin-Z, a calcium montmorillonite clay, is sold as a broad-spectrum toxin binder. To understand how Calibrin-Z can work in your production system, contact your local Amlan representative.



Chi, M. S., C. J. Mirocha, H. J. Kurtz, G. Weaver, F. Bates, and W. Shimoda. 1977. Effects of T-2 Toxin on Reproductive Performance and Health of Laying Hens. Poultry Sci. 56:628 – 637.  

Tai, J.-H. and J. J. Pestka. 1988. Synergistic interaction between the trichothecene T-2 toxin and Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide in C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice. Toxicol Lett 44:191–200.  

Mycotoxins: Risks in Plant, Animal, and Human Systems. 2003. Task Force Report No. 139 Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. Ames, Iowa, USA.

Article Showcases Phylox® in Watt Poultry International

Watt Poultry® International published an article earlier this year on Amlan international’s product, Phylox®. Phylox is a natural alternative to anticoccidial drugs that works well alone, as part of a rotation program, or as part of a bio-shuttle program to control coccidiosis. The natural ingredients of phylox targets multiple Eimeria species with several modes of action, while also promoting a healthy intestinal barrier and improving intestinal immunity. If you missed this article, here is your chance to learn more about Phylox. Follow the link to learn more.

Reduce Salmonella Prevalence and Load with NeutraPath®

Salmonellosis is a foodborne pathogen that causes illness and death worldwide. A blended feed additive has been shown to have good effects in vitro on a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and in vivo to mitigate the effects of Clostridium perfringens in broilers and E. coli in swine. Thus, it was decided to investigate the ability of the proprietary blend of essential oils, medium-chain fatty acids, and an activated toxin-adsorbing mineral (NeutraPath® available in select international markets) to control Salmonella. In vitro and in vivo research with Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella heidelberg showed the blend could reduce prevalence and bacterial load of Salmonella in broiler chickens. Based on these in vitro and in vivo data, feeding this blend could be a potential new method to help control Salmonella in broiler chickens and aid in control of pathogens at the farm level. 


A Foodborne Pathogen 

Salmonella is a very common pathogenic bacteria that can be passed from animals to humans. The typical symptoms of salmonellosis in humans are diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps, with the occasional vomiting. Generally, this is mild and doesn’t require medical intervention, but it can be deadly, especially in young children. Worldwide, Salmonella is one of four main causes of diarrheal diseases, with diarrheal disease being the 2nd leading cause of death in children under five. In the United States approximately 1,350,000,000 people are infected annually, ~26,500 people are hospitalized, and ~420 die each year. The very young, the very old, pregnant women, and people with compromised immune systems are generally affected the most.  

According to the World Health Organization, Salmonella, a hardy bacteria, can survive in a dry environment for several weeks but several weeks turns into several months if it is in water.  


Sometimes salmonellosis can result from coming in direct contact with animals that carry the bacteria, typically reptiles or birds. There are two species of Salmonella, bongori and enterica. Salmonella bongori is normally associated with cold-blooded animals but can infect humans. Selling tiny turtles (those with shells less than 4 inches long) has been prohibited in the U.S. since 1975 because of their association with salmonellosis in children. Salmonella enterica has more serovars with approximately 80 that can infect humans and animals. With an increase in the popularity of raising your own chickens the CDC (Centers for Disease Control) has issued repeated reminders about the safe handling of chickens, including a reminder “don’t kiss your chickens” because of serious outbreaks of salmonellosis, especially among children, linked to raising chickens in the backyard.

But eating or mishandling raw or undercooked contaminated food is the source of most cases of salmonellosis in humans. Live poultry often don’t show signs of carrying Salmonella even if their intestines contain the pathogenic bacteria. There are multiple ways that birds can be exposed to Salmonella. Exposure can be through contaminated feed, from wild birds or rodents, or from a contaminated barn. It is even possible that poultry may be contaminated before the egg that they hatched from was laid. Hens can have bacteria in the ovary or oviduct and the egg can be contaminated before the shell forms around the egg, meaning that even clean, washed eggs could be contaminated. The Poultry Industry has been working diligently to control this problem and this source of contamination of broiler chickens has declined in recent years.  


Even though a majority of the foodborne illnesses due to Salmonella originate from non-poultry sources, twenty-three percent of the Salmonella outbreaks in the U.S. are linked to poultry consumption (16.8% from chicken, 6.6% from turkey) with another 6.3% coming from eggs. Salmonella in the intestine of poultry can lead to contamination of poultry meat during processing. Proper cooking will kill the bacteria, but improper handling may spread bacteria around the kitchen and raw vegetables, undercooked meat or uncooked foods containing eggs (i.e., cookie dough) may still be contaminated with live bacteria. Together the CDC, FDA (Food and Drug Administration), and USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) have a goal of reducing Salmonella illnesses by 25% by 2030. In order to do this, they need to decrease Salmonella infections from all products regulated by the Food Safety and Inspection Service division of the USDA by 25%. One way to help reach this goal is to help minimize the amount of Salmonella that comes into the processing plant making it less likely that contamination of poultry meat will occur.  

Poultry producers need help to accomplish this goal. Research has shown that a proprietary blend of essential oils, medium-chain fatty acids, and an activated toxin-adsorbing mineral (NeutraPath®, Amlan International, available in select international markets) may be of assistance. The blend has anti-virulence effects because of its ability to bind quorum sensing molecules, exotoxins, and endotoxins associated with bacteria. It also has direct bacteriostatic/ bactericidal effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Its efficacy has been proven over years of in vitro and in vivo trials at multiple research sites, against multiple bacteria, in multiple animal species.  

In vivo research in chickens showed that the blend decreased the effects of Clostridium perfringens. A summary of the studies showed that it improved mortality, gain, and feed conversion in challenged broilers. In weaning pigs, it was shown to decrease the impact of enterotoxigenic E-coli (F-18+). In the pigs challenged with E. coli the blend improved feed efficiency and decreased frequency of diarrhea. When the fecal microbiome was examined, there was a higher relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae and a lower relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae. Enterobacteriaceae is a family of Gram-negative bacteria that includes both E. coli and Salmonella. These positive results led researchers to investigate its effects on Salmonella, with research being conducted both in vitro and in vivo.  


Salmonella Research 


In vitro tests were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of NeutraPath against S. heidelberg. Three different concentrations (1, 3 and 5 mg/ml) of NeutraPath with a control of 0 mg/ml were added to samples of an S. heidelberg strain. The MIC of NeutraPath for S. heidelberg was found to be 5 mg/ml. To determine the MBC Salmonella cultures were incubated at 37ºC for 16 hours without agitation. After incubation, bacterial counts were measured by serial dilution. A 30 μl aliquot of each dilution was plated onto lysogeny broth and incubated overnight. The MBC of NeutraPath for S. heidelberg was determined to be 4 μg/ml. These assays demonstrated that the blend has strong in vitro inhibitory and bactericidal activities against this key pathogen.  

Because of the results seen in vitro researchers conducted an in vivo experiment. The researchers wanted to know how the blend would affect the Salmonella prevalence in birds previously challenged with S. heidelberg and fed for a short period of time before sampling.  

After feeding the treatments for seven days, pre-moistened boot-sock swab sampling showed that there was S. heidelberg contamination in 100% of the pens. Cecal digesta samples and cloacal swabs were also collected from 10 of the broilers that had been directly challenged at hatch to determine Salmonella prevalence. The prevalence of Salmonella decreased by 40% in the cecal digesta (83.3% vs. 50.0%) and by 55% (60.0% vs. 26.7%) in the cloacal swabs when the blend was added to the diet for 7 days prior to testing. 


Comparable studies were done at second location with another group of researchers to establish that the results from the initial studies could be repeated in other Salmonella serovars. This time studies looked at the effects of the blend on Salmonella typhimurium.  


First an in vitro study digestion was used to simulate the crop, proventriculus and intestinal section of the gastrointestinal tract. Each “section” had pH and enzymatic conditions that would correspond to that area of the gut. Adding the antimicrobial blend inhibited the growth of S. typhimurium, reducing the total colony forming units recovered in each section. This positive result meant that an in vivo study was warranted. This time the broilers were started at one day of age. Thirty male broiler chicks were placed on two treatments. The treatments were a challenged control with non-treated feed, or birds fed that diet + 0.25% of the blend. At nine days-of-age chickens were given an oral dose of 106 CFU (Colony Forming Units) of live S. typhimurium. Twenty-four hours after the challenge ceca and cecal tonsils were removed so that they could be evaluated for Salmonella recovery. Both the number of positive samples and the amount of Salmonella bacteria found in those positive samples decreased in the treated birds. Feeding the blend decreased the ceca that tested positive for S. typhimurium by 41.7%, 100% of the tested ceca were positive in birds fed the untreated control compared to only 58.3% of the ceca in the birds that were fed the blend. In the birds that tested positive the total S. typhimurium bacterial load recovered in the ceca also dropped by 1.84 log10 CFU/g compared to the untreated control.


Around the world foodborne salmonellosis continues to be a problem. Regulators are targeting aggressive goals for salmonella reduction in poultry meat. A proprietary blend of essential oils, medium-chain fatty acids, and an activated toxin-adsorbing mineral has been shown to work against a variety of bacteria. Research has shown efficacy against C. perfringens, E. coli, and S. typhimurium and S. heidelberg. Based on the current in vitro and in vivo research adding the blended product has the potential to reduce Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. This is a viable option for use in poultry health programs including those controlling Salmonella contamination. To learn more about NeutraPath or to contact a local representative, visit


Dr. Wade Robey and Dr. Aldo Rossi talk Phytochemicals for Coccidiosis Control In WATT Poultry® Article

WATT Poultry® International recently featured Dr. Wade Robey and Dr. Aldo Rossi in an article showcasing the versatility and effectiveness of phytochemicals in the modern poultry market. Phytochemicals have emerged as a natural alternative for coccidiosis control in poultry, providing natural protection to your flock. Dr. Aldo Rossi highlights the adaptability of phytochemicals, explaining how they offer a cost-effective solution in the poultry industry’s progression toward no antibiotic ever (NAE) systems. Click to read more

NeutraPath® Featured in WATT Poultry International

WATT Poultry® International has published an article on NeutraPath®, available in select international countries. NeutraPath is a non-pharmaceutical treatment specifically designed to improve feed efficiency and intestinal health in poultry and livestock. The natural ingredients of NeutraPath® target pathogens and their toxins through several modes of action, providing equivalent performance to industry-standard antibiotics. Follow the link to learn more.


Mineral-based solution for dairy cow gut health

During the 2023 World Dairy Expo held in Madison, Wisconsin, Ann Hess from Feedstuffs 365 spoke with Amlan, the Animal Health business of Oil-Dri, about mineral technology as a solution to support gut health and improve diary performance. Listen to Dr. Marc Herpfer, VP of New Technologies, Regan Culbertson, VP of Strategic Marketing, and Jay Hughes, Director of Technical Services, Americas discuss how the unique, thermally processed calcium montmorillonite with opal lepispheres are driving economic, bottomline, performance in the dairy industry.

Watch the interview here.

Natural Mineral-Based Solutions for Managing Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry

Necrotic enteritis causes economic loss for poultry producers around the world due to bird mortality and production inefficiency. The increasing restrictions on antibiotic growth promoter use have complicated the issue of necrotic enteritis control for antibiotic-free (ABF) producers. However, management programs and mineral-based feed additives can provide natural control methods to reduce the incidence of necrotic enteritis in flocks.

What Is Necrotic Enteritis?

Necrotic enteritis is caused by Clostridium perfringens, a spore-forming anerobic bacteria found throughout the poultry house environment and the normal microbiota of the bird. Disease in birds occurs when there are predisposing conditions, such as diet changes, immune status or intestinal pathophysiology, that cause an overgrowth of C. perfringens. The exotoxins alpha-toxin and necrotic enteritis B-like toxin (NetB) are produced by C. perfringens and have a role in necrotic enteritis development.

Necrotic enteritis occurs due to a breakdown of the defensive intestinal barrier (epithelium and mucus layer). The damage to the intestinal wall impairs nutrient digestion and absorption and can allow toxins to enter the circulatory system. Coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria spp., can increase the incidence of necrotic enteritis as Eimeria also damage intestinal cells. Mycotoxicosis from feed contaminated with fungal toxins can also increase the negative effects of necrotic enteritis. High mortality is a characteristic of clinical necrotic enteritis, while decreased weight gain and reduced feed efficiency are associated with subclinical disease.


Management Programs to Control Necrotic Enteritis

With the global push toward ABF production, maintaining a healthy intestinal environment to reduce the risk of necrotic enteritis now requires effective management strategies. Reduced ventilation, increased litter moisture and poor husbandry can increase the incidence of necrotic enteritis. However, natural feed additives that strengthen and protect the intestinal environment can also help reduce the risk of necrotic enteritis.

Natural Mineral-Based Feed Additives

Along with management best practices, the natural mineral-based feed additives Calibrin®-Z, Varium®, and NeutraPath® (all available in select international markets) can help maintain a healthy intestinal environment and reduce the incidence of necrotic enteritis. Third-party research has shown these products improve the health and performance of necrotic enteritis-challenged broilers.

Calibrin-Z for Broad-Spectrum Biotoxin Defense

Single-ingredient Calibrin-Z protects the intestinal barrier against damage from a broad spectrum of pathogens and bacterial and fungal toxins, including C. perfringens and E. coli toxins and aflatoxin, fumonisin and zearalenone. During manufacture, mineral-based Calibrin-Z undergoes proprietary thermal processing that permits multiple binding mechanisms, including hydrophobic interactions, chelation, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attraction. The result is enhanced pathogen and toxin adsorption without significant binding of important nutrients.

In a study published in the Journal of Applied Poultry Research, Calibrin-Z reduced the effects of necrotic enteritis challenge, including returning gain during days 10 to 24 to levels equal to non-challenged birds. When birds were challenged with necrotic enteritis plus dietary aflatoxin (1 mg/kg), it significantly increased the negative effects of necrotic enteritis. However, Calibrin-Z improved feed efficiency to levels equivalent to birds challenged with necrotic enteritis only. Virginiamycin was not able to do this, demonstrating the benefits of feeding Calibrin-Z, which can bind mycotoxins and bacterial pathogens and their toxins.

Varium Promotes Poultry Efficiency and Productivity

Varium meets the poultry industry’s need to reduce the use of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters while maintaining bird health and performance and providing added-value for producers. Varium’s patented formulation includes Amlan’s mineral technology, yeast and a functional amino acid that work synergistically to reduce pathogenic challenges, strengthen the intestinal barrier and prepare the immune system to naturally defend against disease. With its multiple modes of action, Varium can replace the need for multiple feed additives by providing the same benefits in one product, reducing feed costs and simplifying diet formulations.

Multiple broiler studies have proven that Varium can be as effective as antibiotics in maintaining performance during necrotic enteritis challenge. In a study where necrotic enteritis-challenged broilers were fed for 28 days, feed conversion ratio (FCR), weight gain and mortality were similar between Varium and the antibiotic growth promoter bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD; Figure 1). Similar results were observed when Varium was compared to virginiamycin in another necrotic enteritis challenge study (Figure 2). These results show the value Varium can add to ABF systems by protecting the intestinal environment and promoting bird efficiency.

Figure 1: Weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broilers fed BMD, Varium or non-supplemented for 28 days and undergoing necrotic enteritis challenge.

Figure 2: Weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broilers fed virginiamycin, Varium or non-supplemented for 28 days and undergoing necrotic enteritis challenge.

NeutraPath for Natural Pathogen Control

Another natural option for managing necrotic enteritis is NeutraPath — a proprietary and co-active blend of essential oils, fatty acids and Amlan’s mineral technology. The synergistic formula of NeutraPath is designed to have multiple modes of action, resulting in enhanced intestinal health, improved feed efficiency and reduced mortality in necrotic enteritis-challenged birds. In environments with high bacterial challenge, NeutraPath can reduce the intestinal load and colonization of pathogenic bacteria and help maintain broiler gut health and structural integrity.

NeutraPath has bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties that target cell function and cell wall integrity of pathogenic bacteria. It also neutralizes virulence factors, including the toxins produced by pathogenic bacteria and the quorum-sensing molecules used for pathogen communication.

The on-farm benefits of pathogen control by NeutraPath have been demonstrated in multiple broiler trials. For example, in a 28-day trial that challenged broilers with C. perfringens and Eimeria, NeutraPath reduced mortality and lesion scores to levels similar to birds administered BMD (Figure 3). Additionally, broilers in the NeutraPath group had greater weight gain and a better FCR for the overall 28-day period than necrotic-enteritis challenged control birds, and NeutraPath-fed birds did not differ statistically from BMD-treated broilers (Figure 4). This study shows the performance benefits achieved with NeutraPath by improving intestinal health and reducing the intestinal pathogen load.

Figure 3: NeutraPath reduced mortality and lesions scores by half compared to the necrotic enteritis-challenged control. abcMeans with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05).

Figure 4: NeutraPath improved weight gain and feed efficiency compared to the necrotic enteritis-challenged control. abMeans with different superscripts are significantly different (P < 0.05).


An increasing number of poultry producers are moving toward the global objective of reduced in-feed use of antibiotics. Consequently, maintaining a healthy intestinal environment now relies more heavily on other management methods to reduce the risk of necrotic enteritis. With best practice management strategies and inclusion of feed additives that promote intestinal health and function, poultry flock health can be improved, thereby reducing the risk of disease and maximizing production efficiency. To learn more about necrotic enteritis and the natural mineral-based feed additives that can help manage it, contact your local Amlan representative.



Phylox® Performance Equals Salinomycin or Nicarbazin to Combat a Coccidia Challenge

To an industry looking for anticoccidial alternatives, Amlan International offers Phylox® (available in select international markets), a blend of natural ingredients, Phylox was developed to control coccidiosis without resorting to ionophores or chemicals. Dr. San Ching, a Technical Research Manager at Amlan International was instrumental in the development of Phylox. He had this to say about the development of Amlan’s new product to fight coccidiosis

We designed, Varium®, which provides excellent results reducing the damage from necrotic enteritis caused by toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens. However, our customers also needed a solution for coccidiosis, which is highly related to necrotic enteritis. Therefore, we developed, Phylox, which works to decrease the effects of the parasitic disease. When we started working on a coccidiosis solution, we soon realized that there was a resistance issue in many of the current alternatives, both for antibiotic ionophores and chemicals. Thus, for Phylox we used natural ingredients that would attack coccidia and the coccidiosis problem in more than one way and avoid the development of resistance. We know that the oocysts’ lifecycle is complicated, but most of it occurs in the gut. We selected ingredients that limit the development of the Eimeria oocysts in multiple ways. Additionally, we wanted to invent a product that can work seamlessly with the vaccines.”

Phylox has been shown to be successful in numerous research trials. In 2022, Amlan gave two presentations: A Novel Approach to Coccidiosis Control and A Research-Backed Alternative to Anticoccidial Drugs at the Scientific Forum of IPPE. These presentations represented seven experiments and show Phylox improved growth and immune function in broilers challenged with coccidia. Two additional experiments have been added as a final step in research and development, further proving the value of Phylox for birds facing a coccidia challenge.

In each of the two studies, the coccidia challenge was at day 14 when birds were given an oral dose of 100,000 oocysts of E. acervulina, 50,000 oocysts of E. maxima, and 75,000 oocysts of E. tenella.  The coccidia lifecycle is interesting and complex. Many coccidia species are host specific and do not cross from one host species to another. Several strains of coccidia affect chickens. These strains rise and fall in prominence, in part due to their ability to develop resistance to the chemical or antibiotic that is being used to control them. The three species used in these studies attach to different areas of the gastro-intestinal tract. E. acervuline causes lesions and damage to the upper third of the intestine – the duodenum and upper ileum, E. maxima causes lesions in the middle third of the intestine, and E. tenella cause lesions in the ceca.


In the first study, no coccidiosis vaccines or other coccidiosis medications were given. The treatments in the study consisted of both challenged and unchallenged birds with Phylox in the feed and challenged and unchallenged birds without Phylox in the feed. When a coccidia challenge wasn’t given, birds fed Phylox had the same gain and feed conversion as the control birds both for day 14 – 28 and the overall, day 0 – 28, experimental period (Figures 1 &2). This result proves that feeding Phylox doesn’t have a negative affect when a coccidia challenge isn’t present, which is a problem with some other coccidiosis preventatives.


Figure 1. Weight gain of birds without and with a coccidia challenge with and without Phylox in the feed.


Phylox improved performance in birds challenged with coccidia. Feeding Phylox improved feed conversion in the challenged birds. This was seen in both in the challenge period, day 14 – 28, and for the overall experimental period from day 0 – 28.


Figure 2. Feed conversion of birds without and with a coccidia challenge with and without Phylox.


Figure 3. Phylox has multiple ways to help prevent coccidiosis.


The improvement in feed conversion is because Phylox contains various active ingredients giving it multiple modes of action (Figure 3). This allows Phylox to protect the intestine during a coccidia challenge. First, it interferes with the cell membrane of the coccidia protozoa. Phylox binds to the sterols of the cell membrane, compromising the integrity of the sporozoite cell wall, the cell then dies by apoptosis. Phylox also interrupts the Eimeria lifecycle by preventing oocyst sporulation. By interrupting this step, the oocysts don’t develop from the immature noninfective form to the mature infective form. This disruption protects the intestinal cells from coccidial infection. Other ingredients included in Phylox provide energy to the endothelial cells that line the intestine. The protected intestine is better able to absorb necessary nutrients resulting in improved feed conversion. In addition to improved feed conversion, this protective ability is also shown by the decrease in lesion scores of the challenged birds fed Phylox. The lesion scores formed by each of the coccidia species used in the challenged decreased when birds were fed Phylox when intestines were examined on day 20 (Figure 4).


Figure 4. Lesion scores of birds without and with a coccidia challenge with and without Phylox in the feed.



In an experiment with a similar coccidiosis challenge model, Phylox was compared to using salinomycin or nicarbazin. These feed additives have commonly been used to decrease the effects of coccidiosis.



Figure 5. Weight gain of coccidia challenged broilers fed salinomycin, nicarbazin, or Phylox.


Feeding Phylox resulted in weight gain and feed conversion equal to the salinomycin or nicarbazin treatments (Figure 5 & 6). This is the same result that was seen in the research presented by Dr. Ching at the 2022 IPPE Scientific Forum A Research-Backed Alternative to Anticoccidial Drugs. This result was observed both in the days following the challenge (day 14 – 28), and for the overall experimental period (day 0 – 28). All treatments had better feed conversion than the untreated birds.



Figure 6. Feed conversion of coccidia challenged broilers fed salinomycin, nicarbazin, or Phylox.


Phylox reduced lesion scores for each species of coccidia and as an average of all species compared to the untreated challenge when intestines were examined on day 20. The reduction was equal to that of the ionophore and the chemical coccidiosis treatments. Feeding Phylox also decreased fecal coccidia oocysts counts equal to the decrease seen by feeding salinomycin or nicarbazin. Oocysts were counted in excreta collected from day 19 – 22.



Figure 7. Lesion score or oocyst counts of coccidia challenged broilers fed salinomycin, nicarbazin, or Phylox.


Because Phylox contains various active ingredients it can fill in the gaps that are missing from other coccidiosis control methods. It can be used in No-Antibiotic-Ever programs with no withdrawal requirement. It is effective against multiple Eimeria strains without promoting the emergence of drug-resistant coccidia. And it can be fed with anticoccidial vaccines, preventing disease breakthrough while immunity is being developed by the bird.

Natural Phylox is not only equal to traditional ways of controlling coccidiosis but is equal in economic performance. Phylox can be used to combat coccidiosis in no-antibiotics-ever or traditional production.

Dr. Ching’s presentation of this research at IPPE in the poster session.

Talk to your Amlan representative on how to use Phylox in your production system.

Fifteen Years of Driving Profits Naturally: The History of Amlan International

Dan Jaffee profile with Amlan International logo.

Oil-Dri® Corporation of America has been active in the animal health market since the 1980’s with products designed to help feed flowability and pellet binding. But in 2007, Oil-Dri took a leap — a well-informed, scientifically-backed leap — further into the animal health market with the registration of the Amlan International brand and the official launch of their animal health business. Fifteen years later, Amlan International is a successful global brand that helps poultry and livestock producers optimize intestinal health and add value to their operation. So why did Oil-Dri, a company founded on a garage floor oil adsorbent, decide to invest in animal gut health solutions? And what does the future look like for Amlan?

Creating Value for Animal Health Producers

Consumer demands and concern over antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have created a global push toward antibiotic-free and natural animal protein production. But this change in production has also created the need for natural solutions to help manage the health and productivity of flocks and herds. As Dan Jaffee, President and CEO of Oil-Dri and President and General Manager of Amlan, explains, Oil-Dri saw the opportunity to create value for animal protein producers by leveraging an Oil-Dri-owned mineral to develop novel, natural feed additive solutions under the Amlan brand.

“We realized there was a market need, and Oil-Dri had an incredible natural solution to the problem. Our clay naturally does amazing things; but then when we combine our clay with our multi-million-dollar research investments, in our core lab and our new microbiology lab, we’ve been able to do some incredible things. And we’re really just at the beginning.”

—Dan Jaffee, President and CEO of Oil-Dri, President and General Manager of Amlan

As the animal health business of Oil-Dri, we take full advantage of the benefits that vertical integration brings, including control over the quality of our mineral and ensuring consistency of supply for our customers. We also leverage the 80 years of Oil-Dri mineral science expertise, and we share the values and business ethics of Oil-Dri.

A Broad Range of Natural, Value-Adding Products

Amlan started with just two products, sold internationally outside of North America — biotoxin binding Calibrin®-Z and aflatoxin-binding Calibrin-A. Both products are made from our single-source calcium montmorillonite that undergoes proprietary thermal processing tailored for each product. It’s our mineral’s natural properties and our proprietary processing technique that make our mineral-based products stand out from other clay additives in the market.

Investing heavily in research and development has allowed us to expand our international product range by combining natural ingredients with our mineral to develop synergistic intestinal health solutions for production animals. This included the 2015 launch of Varium® for poultry and NeoPrime® for swine, which help reduce the level of pathogenic challenge in the intestine, strengthen and energize the intestinal barrier and stimulate intestinal immunity. The technology behind Varium and NeoPrime is patented in Brazil, Indonesia, Korea, the European Union, the United States and China, with other countries pending.

Most recently we expanded our international product portfolio with the launch of Phylox® Feed, a natural alternative to anticoccidial drugs and vaccines and NeutraPath®, a natural pathogen-control product (available in select markets). In 2021, Amlan also launched a broad portfolio of products specifically for North American producers. And we’re not done — we have more innovative products in our research pipeline that will continue our efforts to optimize animal intestinal health and provide value for producers.

Your Animal Intestinal Health Partner

Innovative products are a great start for a new business, but we see customers as partners, not numbers on invoices, so we also needed knowledgeable technical service specialists and a strong sales team to support our mission of creating value for our customers. Our team helps customers achieve their production goals by integrating rations with the best Amlan solutions for each situation. As Dan Jaffee mentions in the video below, this includes trialing products first to show customers the true value Amlan can bring to their operations.

Growing Our Future and Yours

Our goal for the future is to continue investing in innovation to continue developing natural solutions to industry challenges that can help producers drive profits naturally. You can hear Dan’s thoughts on the future of Amlan in the video below. Everyone at Amlan shares Dan’s excitement about the intestinal health solutions we are bringing to the animal production industry and the value our products offer for producers. To learn more about Amlan, our innovations and our team, visit our Who We Are page.