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Managing Post-Weaning Diarrhea in Pigs with Natural Feed Additives

The performance and health setbacks, like post-weaning diarrhea, that pigs face during weaning (the fallback effect) can affect growth across the pig’s lifetime and cause significant economic loss for producers. Bacterial toxins are common contributors to post-weaning diarrhea, but natural solutions are available that can target these toxins and strengthen the intestinal barrier, helping to reduce the incidence of diarrhea and keep weaned piglet performance on track.

E. coli Toxins: A Cause of Post-Weaning Diarrhea

Escherichia coli (E. coli) produces potent toxins that can cause enteric disease in recently weaned pigs. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a common cause of post-weaning diarrhea. It produces heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) that alters the electrolyte and water balance in intestinal cells, leading to diarrhea.1 A survey of U.S. ETEC isolates linked to porcine post-weaning diarrhea showed that 57.7% had the heat-labile toxin gene.2

Additionally, when E. coli die, they release endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) from the cell wall. Endotoxin can damage intestinal cells leading to weakness in the intestinal barrier that can cause “leaky gut” syndrome, causing diarrhea and allowing endotoxin to enter the bloodstream where it can cause shock or even death.

Calibrin®-Z Is a Natural Binder of Bacterial Toxins

Mineral-based Calibrin®-Z (available in select international markets) helps protect the intestinal environment of swine from a broad spectrum of pathogens and bacterial toxins (including E. coli toxins), as well as fungal toxins like aflatoxin, ochratoxin, fumonisin and zearalenone. Single-ingredient Calibrin-Z undergoes specifically tailored proprietary thermal processing during manufacture that optimizes its binding ability. The result is enhanced bacterial and fungal toxin adsorption without significant binding of important nutrients.

Multiple in vitro studies by third-party laboratories have proven the bacterial toxin binding capabilities of Calibrin-Z. The toxins bound by Calibrin-Z in vitro include E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin and E. coli endotoxin (LPS), as well as difficile (formerly known as Clostridium difficile) toxins, toxin A and toxin B, a cause of enteric disease in neonatal piglets (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Calibrin-Z bound multiple E. coli and C. difficile toxins in vitro.

NeoPrime® for Naturally Healthier Weaning

Traditionally, antibiotics were included in nursery pig diet formulations to improve performance and reduce the risk of disease during weaning. However, concern over antimicrobial resistant pathogens and consumer preferences have reduced the prophylactic use of antibiotics in swine diets. Similarly, high levels of zinc oxide (2,000 to 3,000 ppm) were often added to weaned piglet rations to decrease the incidence of diarrhea and improve weight gain. But this practice has raised concerns of overloading zinc in soil and water when manure is used as fertilizer.

A natural alternative to antibiotic and zinc oxide use is the mineral-based feed additive NeoPrime® (available in select international markets). To counteract the performance fallback effects of weaning, patented NeoPrime positively modifies the intestinal environment, energizes enterocytes for better nutrient absorption and primes the intestinal immune system. The ingredients in NeoPrime — Amlan’s mineral technology plus yeast and a functional amino acid — work synergistically to reduce pathogenic challenges, strengthen the intestinal barrier and safely stimulate the intestinal immune system.

A study conducted by Chi et. al (2018) looked at the performance benefits of adding NeoPrime to a diet that included antibiotics and zinc oxide, as well as the effects when antibiotics, zinc oxide or their combination were removed from the diet.3 The researchers also monitored E. coli endotoxin concentration in blood plasma.

Weaned pigs (90 male, 90 female) 28 days of age (6.8 kg) were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replications. Pigs were fed one of five treatments (Table 1) for 35 days, with feed consumption and body weight recorded on days 14 and 35. The antibiotics used were chlortetracycline (75 g/MT) and olaquindox (100 g/MT), and the zinc oxide was included at a rate of 3 kg/MT. Blood was drawn from one pig per pen on days 14 and 35.

Table 1: Piglets were fed one of five treatments with or without NeoPrime, antibiotics and zinc oxide.


On day 14, pigs fed NeoPrime maintained body weight and feed conversion, even when antibiotics, zinc oxide or their combination were removed from the diet (Table 2). By day 35, pigs fed NeoPrime tended to increase body weight instead of only maintaining performance and had numerically improved feed conversion compared to the control (Table 2). Plasma endotoxin was generally lower when NeoPrime was added to the diet (Figure 2), indicating that NeoPrime bound and removed LPS from the intestine. The research suggests that NeoPrime is an effective natural alternative to prophylactic antibiotic use and zinc oxide supplementation.

Table 2: NeoPrime maintained performance even when antibiotics, zinc oxide or their combination were removed from the diet.


Figure 2: NeoPrime decreased plasma endotoxin compared to the control.


NeutraPath for High-Challenge Environments

In high-challenge environments, swine can be fed NeutraPath® (available in select international markets) which is a proprietary and co-active blend of essential oils, fatty acids and Amlan’s mineral technology. NeutraPath has multiple modes of action, including , decreasing pathogenic bacteria with its bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties and improving intestinal structural integrity. By reducing pathogenic bacterial intestinal colonization, NeutraPath can improve intestinal health and help reduce the incidence of post-weaning diarrhea.

The health and performance benefits of NeutraPath in ETEC-challenged pigs were shown in a study by He et al. (2022).4 Pre-weaned piglets (18 male, 18 female) were enrolled in the study after fecal samples were confirmed to be absent from β-hemolytic E. coli and genotyping verified susceptibility to F18 ETEC. Weaned piglets were fed a control diet, or that diet supplemented with 0.25% or 0.5% NeutraPath for 28 days. After a 7-day adaptation period, pigs were orally inoculated with F18 ETEC. Fecal consistency was scored twice daily after inoculation, and fecal and gut microbiome samples were taken at multiple time points during the challenge period.

Overall, NeutraPath reduced the incidence and severity of diarrhea. The NeutraPath groups had lower (P < 0.05) frequency of diarrhea score ≧ 3 than the control group (Figure 3) and the NeutraPath 0.25% group had lower frequency of diarrhea score ≧ 4 than the control (Figure 3).

Figure 3: NeutraPath reduced the overall incidence and severity of diarrhea.

Both NeutraPath dose rates improved (P = 0.048) gain:feed from day 14 to 21 post-infection (the recovery period) and improved (P < 0.05) growth across the whole feed period regardless of dose. The overall growth rates were 258% (NeutraPath 0.25%), 261% (NeutraPath 0.5%) and 229% (control) higher than the weight at the day of the challenge.

The study also showed that NeutraPath may help maintain desirable bacteria in the intestine during the ETEC infection period (Figure 4). On day 7 post-infection, both NeutraPath groups had a higher relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae and reduced relative abundance of Bacteroidaceae and Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples. The NeutraPath 0.5% group also had increased relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae in feces on day 7 post-infection and enhanced relative abundance of Clostridiaceae1 and reduced Enterobacteriaceae in the ileal mucosa.


Figure 4: NeutraPath helped maintain desirable bacteria in the intestine during the ETEC infection period.


Changes to the fecal microbiome and ileal mucosa microbiota composition indicated that NeutraPath may be able to maintain a more favorable intestinal environment during ETEC infection. NeutraPath also reduced the incidence and severity of diarrhea and had better performance during the recovery period in this study, suggesting NeutraPath is an effective natural method for managing post-weaning diarrhea.


Amlan offers swine producers a range of natural options to help manage post-weaning diarrhea in piglets. Our products can reduce the pathogen load in the intestinal environment and strengthen the intestine, keeping weaned piglets healthier and more productive. For more information on our range of natural solutions for post-weaning diarrhea, contact your local Amlan representative.



  1. Duan Q, Xia P, Nandre R, Zhang W, Zhu G. Review of Newly Identified Functions Associated with the Heat-Labile Toxin of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2019;9:292.
  2. Zhang W, Zhao M, Ruesch L, Omot A, Francis D. Prevalence of virulence genes in Escherichia coli strains recently isolated from young pigs with diarrhea in the US. Vet Microbiol. 2007;123:145–152.
  3. Chi F, Johnston S, Tang X, Chen W, Wang B, Tang S. PSIV-28 Effects of replacing zinc oxide and antibiotics with NeoPrime® on growth performance and plasma and fecal endotoxin concentration in nursery pigs. J Anim Sci. 2018;96(Suppl 3):321.
  4. He Y, Jinno C, Li C, Johnston SL, Xue H, Liu Y, Ji P. Effects of a blend of essential oils, medium-chain fatty acids, and a toxin-adsorbing mineral on diarrhea and gut microbiome of weanling pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic Escherichia coli. J Anim Sci. 2022;100(1):skab365.

A Natural Solution to Mitigating Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) in Shrimp

Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), originally called “early mortality syndrome,” costs the shrimp industry billions of dollars each year. Outbreaks of the disease have occurred in multiple countries around the world, leading to shrimp mortality and loss of income for many commercial farms. Here we discuss the etiology of AHPND and a natural solution for mitigating its effects.

The Bacteria Behind AHPND

The causative agent of AHPND is Vibrio parahaemolyticus, an orally transmitted bacteria that colonizes the shrimp gastrointestinal tract. V. parahaemolyticus produces a potent binary toxin that enters the hepatopancreas and causes dysfunction and destruction of this vital organ, often leading to mortality. Affected shrimp present with an abnormal hepatopancreas that is often reduced in size and shows whitening and hardening. However, very high mortality within a short period of time may be the first indication that a pond has been infected.

A Toxic Cause of Hepatopancreatic Cell Death

The specific strain of V. parahaemolyticus that causes AHPND was first identified by Dr. Lightner’s group at the University of Arizona, who also reported that the pathology was caused by a toxin secreted by V. parahaemolyticus.1 Lee et al. (2015) showed that the strains of V. parahaemolyticus that cause AHPND contain a plasmid (pVA1) that encodes the binary toxin PirABvp (Photorhabdus insect-related toxins PirAvp and PirBvp) and that this toxin leads to the death of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells.2

Natural Protection from AHPND

Protecting shrimp from the damaging effects of AHPND requires consideration of multiple factors, including biosecurity measures and other production practices that reduce the risk of disease. However, a natural mineral-based solution, Calibrin®-Z (available in select international markets), is also available to help protect shrimp from AHPND and the devastating production losses it causes.

Calibrin-Z is a broad-spectrum biotoxin binder manufactured from a single ingredient — Amlan’s unique mineral technology. Calibrin-Z is optimized via proprietary thermal processing and binds mycotoxins and certain endo and exotoxins produced by pathogenic bacteria, helping to defend the intestinal tract from enteric disease.

When bacterial toxins (and mycotoxins) flow through the gastrointestinal tract, they are bound by Calibrin-Z and thus prevented from entering the hepatopancreas. The bound toxin is removed through normal digestive function (Figure 1). To provide optimal protection against AHPND, Calibrin-Z should be fed consistently from the beginning to the end of the growing cycle.

Figure 1: Calibrin-Z helps prevent PirA and PirB toxins from entering the hepatopancreas by binding the toxins. The bound toxin is removed through normal digestive function.

Research Proves Protective Effect of Calibrin-Z

A number of studies have shown the protective benefits of adding Calibrin-Z to shrimp diets. Here we present a commercial farm case study as well as two university-based studies that demonstrate the health, performance and economic benefits of Calibrin-Z.

Commercial Case Study Shows Strong ROI

In this study at a commercial farm in Mexico, shrimp were fed either probiotics and charcoal (control group, five ponds) or Calibrin-Z (5 kg/MT feed, four ponds) from post-larvae to market weight (approximately 90 days). Each pond (5 ha) was stocked with 1 million shrimp. An AHPND outbreak did not occur during this trial.

Shrimp fed Calibrin-Z had greater average weekly weight gain (P < 0.1), improved feed conversion at harvest (P < 0.05) and reached harvest time (14 g weight) six days earlier (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Calibrin-Z improved shrimp performance compared to shrimp fed probiotics and charcoal.

Calibrin-Z Provides Hepatopancreatic Protection and Increases Survival Rates

Another study was conducted at Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, Laboratorio de Analisis en Sanidad Acuícola (Aquatic Health Laboratory) in Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. White shrimp (Penaeus vannamei, 30 shrimp per treatment, three replications per treatment) were fed one of four treatments: negative control (no challenge), positive control (V. parahaemolyticus challenged), Calibrin-Z at 0.25% (challenged) or Calibrin-Z at 0.5% (challenged). The shrimp were fed twice a day for 20 days (fed for 15 days then challenged for 5 days). The positive control and Calibrin-Z groups were challenged by immersion with bacterial broth (TSB) containing V. parahaemolyticus (AHPND, strain 6V) via waterborne contact infection.

Calibrin-Z fed at 0.5% doubled the survival rate after experimental V. parahaemolyticus infection compared to the positive control (63.3% vs. 30%, Figure 3) and significantly improved cumulative mortality (Figure 4). A protective effect in the hepatopancreas was also observed in shrimp fed 0.5% Calibrin-Z compared to the positive control. Severity of AHPND histopathology (G0 = an absence of damage and G4 = severe tissue lesions) was 0 for the negative control, 4 for the positive control and 2 for Calibrin-Z fed at 0.5%. Calibrin-Z fed at 0.5% clearly shows significant improvement in shrimp survival rates.

Figure 3: Calibrin-Z fed at 0.5% doubled the survival rate of shrimp challenged with V. parahaemolyticus infection compared to the positive control (P < 0.05).


Figure 4: Cumulative mortality was improved by feeding Calibrin-Z to shrimp challenged with V. parahaemolyticus compared to the challenged control.


Enhanced Microbiota Diversity and Improved Survivability with Calibrin-Z

A study conducted at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, looked at the benefits of Calibrin-Z on post-larval growth, gut health and disease resistance to AHPND. The researchers used triplicate groups of specific pathogen-free shrimp (Penaeus vannamei, 20 per replicate) and compared the performance and health of a negative control, positive control and Calibrin-Z fed at 0.25% or 0.5%. All groups were fed for 14 days and then a 7-day emersion challenge was conducted with all groups, except the negative control, using an AHPND-causing strain of V. parahaemolyticus.

Calibrin-Z at 0.25 or 0.5% did not affect growth, feed efficiency or survival during the 14-day unchallenged period. When challenged, shrimp fed Calibrin-Z at 0.25% and 0.5% had significantly higher survival rates (83.3 and 93.8%, respectively) compared to the positive control group (39.6%) and were not significantly different to the negative control (96.7%).

Presumptive Vibrio and total cultivable bacteria counts in the hepatopancreas were lower for shrimp fed Calibrin-Z, and histopathology of the hepatopancreas showed less damage compared to the positive control group. Calibrin-Z also enhanced the stomach microbiota diversity and appeared to modulate the bacterial community, which may have positively affected shrimp survival.


These studies demonstrate the benefits Calibrin-Z offers shrimp farmers as a natural solution for mitigating the production and profit-limiting effects of AHPND. The unique biotoxin-binding features of Calibrin-Z help provide protection against bacterial toxins like PirA and PirB as well as mycotoxins in the feed. For more information on how Calibrin-Z can benefit your farm, visit or contact your local Amlan representative.




  1. Tran L, Nunan L, Redman RM, Mohney LL, Pantoja CR, Fitzsimmons K, Lightner DV. Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp. Dis Aquat Org. 2013;105:45–55.
  2. Lee CT, Chen IT, Yang YT, Ko TP, Huang YT, Huang JY, Huang MF, Lin SJ, Chen CY, Lin SS, Lightner DV, Wang HC, Wang AH, Wang HC, Hor LI, Lo CF. The opportunistic marine pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus becomes virulent by acquiring a plasmid that expresses a deadly toxin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2015;112:10798–10803.



Amlan International Featured in Feed & Additive Magazine

Feed & Additive Magazine covered Amlan’s latest study in their January issue focused on antibiotic reduction strategies and alternative feed additives. The article highlights research backed performance benefits of feeding natural, mineral-based additives with synergistic modes of action when removing antibiotics. As many producers look to offset decreased feed efficiency and increased mortality when removing AGPs, Amlan’s unique mineral technology may be the answer.

Phylox® Performance Equals Salinomycin or Nicarbazin to Combat a Coccidia Challenge


To an industry looking for anticoccidial alternatives, Amlan International offers Phylox® (available in select international markets), a blend of natural ingredients, Phylox was developed to control coccidiosis without resorting to ionophores or chemicals. Dr. San Ching, a Technical Research Manager at Amlan International was instrumental in the development of Phylox. He had this to say about the development of Amlan’s new product to fight coccidiosis

We designed, Varium®, which provides excellent results reducing the damage from necrotic enteritis caused by toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens. However, our customers also needed a solution for coccidiosis, which is highly related to necrotic enteritis. Therefore, we developed, Phylox, which works to decrease the effects of the parasitic disease. When we started working on a coccidiosis solution, we soon realized that there was a resistance issue in many of the current alternatives, both for antibiotic ionophores and chemicals. Thus, for Phylox we used natural ingredients that would attack coccidia and the coccidiosis problem in more than one way and avoid the development of resistance. We know that the oocysts’ lifecycle is complicated, but most of it occurs in the gut. We selected ingredients that limit the development of the Eimeria oocysts in multiple ways. Additionally, we wanted to invent a product that can work seamlessly with the vaccines.”

Phylox has been shown to be successful in numerous research trials. In 2022, Amlan gave two presentations: A Novel Approach to Coccidiosis Control and A Research-Backed Alternative to Anticoccidial Drugs at the Scientific Forum of IPPE. These presentations represented seven experiments and show Phylox improved growth and immune function in broilers challenged with coccidia. Two additional experiments have been added as a final step in research and development, further proving the value of Phylox for birds facing a coccidia challenge.

In each of the two studies, the coccidia challenge was at day 14 when birds were given an oral dose of 100,000 oocysts of E. acervulina, 50,000 oocysts of E. maxima, and 75,000 oocysts of E. tenella.  The coccidia lifecycle is interesting and complex. Many coccidia species are host specific and do not cross from one host species to another. Several strains of coccidia affect chickens. These strains rise and fall in prominence, in part due to their ability to develop resistance to the chemical or antibiotic that is being used to control them. The three species used in these studies attach to different areas of the gastro-intestinal tract. E. acervuline causes lesions and damage to the upper third of the intestine – the duodenum and upper ileum, E. maxima causes lesions in the middle third of the intestine, and E. tenella cause lesions in the ceca.


In the first study, no coccidiosis vaccines or other coccidiosis medications were given. The treatments in the study consisted of both challenged and unchallenged birds with Phylox in the feed and challenged and unchallenged birds without Phylox in the feed. When a coccidia challenge wasn’t given, birds fed Phylox had the same gain and feed conversion as the control birds both for day 14 – 28 and the overall, day 0 – 28, experimental period (Figures 1 &2). This result proves that feeding Phylox doesn’t have a negative affect when a coccidia challenge isn’t present, which is a problem with some other coccidiosis preventatives.


Figure 1. Weight gain of birds without and with a coccidia challenge with and without Phylox in the feed.


Phylox improved performance in birds challenged with coccidia. Feeding Phylox improved feed conversion in the challenged birds. This was seen in both in the challenge period, day 14 – 28, and for the overall experimental period from day 0 – 28.


Figure 2. Feed conversion of birds without and with a coccidia challenge with and without Phylox.


Figure 3. Phylox has multiple ways to help prevent coccidiosis.


The improvement in feed conversion is because Phylox contains various active ingredients giving it multiple modes of action (Figure 3). This allows Phylox to protect the intestine during a coccidia challenge. First, it interferes with the cell membrane of the coccidia protozoa. Phylox binds to the sterols of the cell membrane, compromising the integrity of the sporozoite cell wall, the cell then dies by apoptosis. Phylox also interrupts the Eimeria lifecycle by preventing oocyst sporulation. By interrupting this step, the oocysts don’t develop from the immature noninfective form to the mature infective form. This disruption protects the intestinal cells from coccidial infection. Other ingredients included in Phylox provide energy to the endothelial cells that line the intestine. The protected intestine is better able to absorb necessary nutrients resulting in improved feed conversion. In addition to improved feed conversion, this protective ability is also shown by the decrease in lesion scores of the challenged birds fed Phylox. The lesion scores formed by each of the coccidia species used in the challenged decreased when birds were fed Phylox when intestines were examined on day 20 (Figure 4).


Figure 4. Lesion scores of birds without and with a coccidia challenge with and without Phylox in the feed.



In an experiment with a similar coccidiosis challenge model, Phylox was compared to using salinomycin or nicarbazin. These feed additives have commonly been used to decrease the effects of coccidiosis.



Figure 5. Weight gain of coccidia challenged broilers fed salinomycin, nicarbazin, or Phylox.


Feeding Phylox resulted in weight gain and feed conversion equal to the salinomycin or nicarbazin treatments (Figure 5 & 6). This is the same result that was seen in the research presented by Dr. Ching at the 2022 IPPE Scientific Forum A Research-Backed Alternative to Anticoccidial Drugs. This result was observed both in the days following the challenge (day 14 – 28), and for the overall experimental period (day 0 – 28). All treatments had better feed conversion than the untreated birds.



Figure 6. Feed conversion of coccidia challenged broilers fed salinomycin, nicarbazin, or Phylox.


Phylox reduced lesion scores for each species of coccidia and as an average of all species compared to the untreated challenge when intestines were examined on day 20. The reduction was equal to that of the ionophore and the chemical coccidiosis treatments. Feeding Phylox also decreased fecal coccidia oocysts counts equal to the decrease seen by feeding salinomycin or nicarbazin. Oocysts were counted in excreta collected from day 19 – 22.



Figure 7. Lesion score or oocyst counts of coccidia challenged broilers fed salinomycin, nicarbazin, or Phylox.


Because Phylox contains various active ingredients it can fill in the gaps that are missing from other coccidiosis control methods. It can be used in No-Antibiotic-Ever programs with no withdrawal requirement. It is effective against multiple Eimeria strains without promoting the emergence of drug-resistant coccidia. And it can be fed with anticoccidial vaccines, preventing disease breakthrough while immunity is being developed by the bird.

Natural Phylox is not only equal to traditional ways of controlling coccidiosis but is equal in economic performance. Phylox can be used to combat coccidiosis in no-antibiotics-ever or traditional production.

Dr. Ching’s presentation of this research at IPPE in the poster session.

Talk to your Amlan representative on how to use Phylox in your production system.

Calibrin®-Z Decreases Gizzard Erosion in Day-Old Chicks

The gizzard is an important part of the gastrointestinal tract of poultry. The gizzard works to grind feed which enables digestion and absorption of nutrients to take place in species that lack teeth.

While the gizzard is a tough, muscular organ, the lining of the gizzard can be susceptible to damage as it interacts with the feed coming through the gastro-intestinal tract. Damage to the gizzard lining can cause reduced feed intake, low growth rates, poor feed conversion, and in severe cases increased mortality – all leading to poor flock performance. Gizzard erosion has numerous causes and is seen as early as day-old chicks. Early damage to the gizzard lining leads to increased morbidity and mortality in newly hatched chicks and can be attributed to the incubation process or to the hen’s diet.

Gizzard damage is not a new problem in the industry. It was discussed in research publications in the 1930s. But gizzard damage, and the loss of performance that it causes, continue to be a prevalent problem. In 2018 gizzard damage was reported as the most common enteric problem of flocks in Asia (Elanco Field Report presented at the 11th Asia Pacific Poultry Conference March 25-27, 2018). “Gizzard erosion can act as a hidden destroyer of performance in broilers. While it rarely outright kills the birds it will make them back off of feed and decrease growth rates. Field data has shown that hen feeds containing mycotoxins can have a negative impact on progeny.  The transmission of mycotoxins through the egg can produce gizzard erosions in chicks before they ever take the first bite of feed themselves,” said Jay Hughes, Director of Global Technical Service for Amlan International.

In addition to gizzard damage from nutritional deficiencies reported in early research, numerous further causes have been found for gizzard erosion (Figure 1). These include genetic predisposition, management factors such as feed outages or feed form, infections agents such as adenovirus and Clostridium perfringens, or toxins such as aflatoxin or gizzerosine. It has long been known that the diet of the hen could impact the newly hatched chicks. This was reported in research published in the journal Poultry Science as early as 1942. Tepper and Bird showed that gizzard damage in day-old-chick could be reduced by the changes to the hen’s diet.

Several poultry breeder farms in Asia were experiencing gizzard erosion in day-old chicks (Picture 1). The farmers theorized that toxins in the diet they were feeding their hens could be the problem. Calibrin-Z, available in select international markets, has been shown to bind multiple biotoxins, including Aflatoxin, Cyclopiozonic Acid, and the toxins produced by clostridium perfringens – all of which can contribute to damage to the gizzard. Therefore, the producers tested Calibrin-Z to see if adding it to the breeder flock diets would solve their problem. Several farms ran experiments to find this answer.

Picture1. Damage in gizzards of day-old chicks prior to adding Calibrin-Z.


On Farm 1, 30 newly hatched chicks were collected at random in the hatchery. Calibrin-Z was fed for one month, at a dose of 1 kg/metric ton of feed.  After feeding the hens Calibrin-Z for one month, 30 one-day-old were examined at hatch. Adding Calibrin-Z to the diet decreased gizzard erosion. Calibrin-Z was fed for another month at a stepped-down rate of 500 g/metric ton of feed. When 30 chicks hatched from eggs collected at the end of that period were examined the erosion problem had continued to improve, with zero gizzard erosions that were classified as severe or moderate (Picture 2).

Picture 2. Gizzards from one-day-old chicks from breeder hens fed Calibrin-Z for fifty-one days. Erosions improved at 30 days and improved further by day 51. No gizzard showed moderate or severe erosion after 51 days of feeding.

In a second experiment, five one-day-old chicks were dissected, and all 5 chicks had severe gizzard erosion. Calibrin-Z was added to the hens’ diet at 1 kg per metric ton and fed for 30 days. Chicks hatched from eggs collected at that point were examined. There were no observed gizzard erosions in those chicks.

A third breeder farm had a similar gizzard erosion problem in day-old chicks, but this farm also observed that the chicks hatched with discolored livers. Livers had a yellow coloring, which sometimes indicates incubation stress or mycotoxicosis. Calibrin-Z was fed at 1 kg /metric ton for one month and chicks from eggs gathered at the end of that period had normal, healthy colored livers and no gizzard erosions.

In both experiments, the results show feeding Calibrin-Z to breeder hens significantly reduced gizzard erosion in day-old chicks. The health status of newly hatched chicks can be affected by the quality of the diet fed to hens. Breeders can help reduce gizzard erosion and other clinical signs of mycotoxicosis by adding Calibrin-Z to their diets. To learn more about Calibrin-Z and to start a breeder hen trial, contact your local representative.

Rapidly Adsorb Aflatoxins and Improve Poultry Performance with Calibrin-A

Calibrin-A White Broilers

Mitigating the effects of mycotoxin-contaminated feed is a goal of every poultry producer in order to keep birds healthy and reduce the negative effects of mycotoxicosis on performance. Aflatoxin is a common threat to poultry productivity, targeting and damaging the liver and causing mortality in severe cases. Subclinical cases can reduce feed intake, weight gain and efficiency, which negatively impact the cost of production and, ultimately, profits.

Aflatoxin is a polar or hydrophilic (water-loving) mycotoxin, which means it and other polar mycotoxins, like ergotamine, ergovaline and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), are attracted to hydrophilic surfaces. Calibrin®-A (available in select international markets) is a mineral-based feed additive that rapidly adsorbs these polar mycotoxins due to its hydrophilic binding sites. If mycotoxin diagnostic tests (e.g., BioInsights) detect feed is contaminated with polar mycotoxins, Calibrin-A is an effective solution for reducing performance loss.

The Calibrin-A Difference

Calibrin-A contains one ingredient — our single-source calcium montmorillonite with opal CT lepispheres. We select our calcium montmorillonite from a specific location within our mine to ensure product consistency, quality and reliability for customers. We’re very specific about where we source our mineral, because of its natural physical and chemical properties. We also use proprietary mineral processing methods that are tailored for each product. These unique properties are what create the difference between Calibrin-A and other clay binders in the market. Calibrin-A naturally adsorbs polar mycotoxins and is designed to have a high particle count and increased access to hydrophilic binding sites. The combination of natural mineral characteristics and processing techniques creates a highly effective, fast-acting feed additive for binding polar mycotoxins.

Rapid Polar Mycotoxin Adsorption Is Key

Eliminating the fast uptake of mycotoxins into the digestive system is key to preventing the negative health and performance effects of mycotoxicosis. Mycotoxins quickly metabolize in the intestines and liver and can circulate in the blood for days or weeks. While certain toxins enter the body more quickly than others, the negative effects consistently result in decreased performance and unrealized economic potential. Calibrin-A rapidly adsorbs polar mycotoxins, reducing their bioavailability in the body and mitigating performance loss (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Calibrin-A rapidly adsorbs aflatoxin. Source: Trilogy Analytical Laboratory, USA.

Calibrin-A Improves Performance of Aflatoxin-Fed Broilers

The impact rapid aflatoxin adsorption by Calibrin-A has on bird productivity was shown in two broiler studies. In research conducted at the University of Missouri (Columbia, MO), Calibrin-A abated the detrimental effects of aflatoxin-contaminated feed on broiler health and performance. The study compared a control diet to diets containing 2 ppm of aflatoxin, with or without 0.5% Calibrin-A, fed to day-old Ross 308 chicks for 21 days.

As expected, aflatoxin in the feed caused decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency, and increased (P > 0.05) relative liver weight compared to control birds. The liver is the main target of aflatoxin if it enters the body from the intestine. Aflatoxin will cause the liver to swell and it can become “fatty” with a yellow appearance. The swollen liver and decreased weight gain causes increased relative liver weight.

Adding Calibrin‑A to the diet of birds fed aflatoxin improved weight gain and feed efficiency (Figure 2), and reduced the mycotoxin-induced increase in relative liver weight (Figure 3). Mortality rate of the control and Calibrin-A-fed birds (2.5%) was lower than the aflatoxin-fed birds (10%).

Figure 2: Calibrin-A improved weight gain and feed efficiency in broilers fed aflatoxin-contaminated feed (P < 0.05).

Figure 3: Calibrin-A reduced the mycotoxin-induced increase in relative liver weight (P > 0.05).

In a study conducted at SAMITEC (Santa Maria, Brazil), four groups of male broiler chicks (6 reps x 10 chicks each) received a diet with or without aflatoxin (2.8 ppm) and with or without 0.5% Calibrin-A (CON, AFL, CON + Calibrin-A, AFL + Calibrin-A). Calibrin-A improved (P < 0.05) the feed intake and body weight of birds fed aflatoxin (Figures 4 and 5) and reduced (P < 0.05) the average liver weight of birds fed aflatoxin (Figure 6). Additionally, adding Calibrin-A to the control diet (no aflatoxin) at 10 times the recommended dose had no negative effects on growth performance (Figures 4 and 5), indicating that Calibrin-A does not significantly interfere with nutrient use.

In order to achieve statistical significance between the challenged and non-challenged birds, a much higher concentration of aflatoxin was used in both studies than would typically be seen in poultry diets. Because birds were challenged with a high amount of aflatoxin, Calibrin-A was also included at a higher dose than typically recommended. The ratio of Calibrin-A to aflatoxin in the feed was 2500:1 (5000 ppm Calibrin-A and 2 ppm aflatoxin) for the University of Missouri study, for example, which is equivalent to the recommended inclusion rate of Calibrin-A (500 ppm) and 0.2 ppm of aflatoxin in the feed. This amount of aflatoxin is still higher than the concentration typically found in poultry feed.

Figure 4: Calibrin-A increased feed intake in birds fed aflatoxin (P < 0.05).

Figure 5: Calibrin-A increased the average weight of birds fed aflatoxin to a weight similar to control birds (P < 0.05).

Figure 6: Calibrin-A decreased the average liver weight of birds fed aflatoxin (P < 0.05).

These studies demonstrate the performance and health benefits of feeding Calibrin-A to rapidly adsorb polar mycotoxins like aflatoxin. Single-ingredient, mineral-based Calibrin-A is an effective solution to mitigating the risk of mycotoxicosis from aflatoxin-contaminated feed. To learn more about Calibrin-A or to try Calibrin-A for yourself, contact your local sales representative.



Varium® Improves Performance in Commercial Broilers Compared to an Antibiotic Growth Promoter

Varium Product Blog

Varium was developed to provide poultry producers with a product to improve production by optimizing gut health. One of the ways this can be shown is by improvements in feed conversion. Because feed costs are such a large part of the cost of poultry production, any improvement in feed conversion can have a big impact on the bottom line. Additionally, decreasing the amount of feed used to produce a kilogram of meat increases the sustainability of the operation, which is very important in today’s world.

Varium, available in select international markets, has multiple modes of action to increase its ability to improve performance. It was designed to protect against biotoxins ​in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract and keep them from entering the body, to energize the epithelial cells that line the intestine, and help the immune system prepare to respond to antigens. ​Over the years numerous controlled experiments have shown that Varium improves feed conversion under a variety of conditions. A meta-analysis of this research was presented at the Poultry Science Association’s 2nd Latin American Scientific Conference in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. This summary of multiple experiments showed that feeding Varium resulted in broiler performance that was equal to that obtained when an antibiotic growth promoter was fed, this was seen both in birds that were challenged with the bacterium Clostridium perfringens to induce necrotic enteritis and in unchallenged birds. When both the antibiotic and Varium were fed together it improved the feed conversion ratio even more (Figure 1).

Graph of relative FCR to control

Figure 1. Varium improved Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) compared to unchallenged or challenged control, equal to the antibiotic growth promoter (AGP).

Since that time, information from the field has shown that feeding Varium resulted in less damage to the intestine of commercial broilers and improved villi height/crypt depth, which correlated to improved overall feed conversion (Lima, Peru).

In 2022, a large commercial study was run in southern Brazil. The study used approximately 180,000 broilers from three farms with each farm feeding one house a control diet with their standard feed containing a mycotoxin binder and enramycin, an antibiotic used as a feed additive to prevent necrotic enteritis. A second house had those ingredients removed and 0.1% Varium was added. The chicks that were supplied to the farms for evaluation were from breeders of the same age. Every week a sample weight was measured in each barn and mortalities were tabulated. Birds were harvested at 47.29 days for the Control birds and 47.17 days for the Varium fed birds (Figure 2). With a daily weight gain of 69.60 g for the Control birds and 70.62 g for the Varium fed birds.

Graph of body weight in kilograms

Figure 2. Body weight (kg) for broilers fed 0.1% Varium compared to broilers fed feed containing a mycotoxin binder and the antibiotic enramycin.

Weekly mortality, cumulative mortality, and transport mortality were all lower when birds were fed Varium compared to those fed the antibiotic (Figure 3). Overall feed conversion was 1.717 for the Control birds and 1.671 for the birds fed Varium; an advantage for birds fed Varium of 4.6 points.

Graph of cumulative mortality percentage by week

Figure 3. Mortality was lower for birds fed Varium each week and cumulatively by week. Final mortality included birds that died during transportation to harvest.

Feed conversion was 1.717 for the Control birds and 1.671 for the Varium fed birds, an advantage of 4.6 points (Figure 4). When the feed conversion was adjusted to a common ending weight of 3.25 kg adjusted feed conversion was 1.706 for the Control birds and 1.643 for the Varium fed birds, an advantage of 6.3 points for the Varium fed birds.

Graph of feed conversion

Figure 4. Feed conversion improved when broilers were fed Varium versus an antibiotic, both for overall or when adjusted to a final weight of 3.25 kg.

The 2022 Brazilian study shows that feeding Varium can improve efficiencies and performance, which are critical to increasing profits. In this case, the added annual profit for a producer processing 1 million birds per week would equate to approximately USD 6 million. Using an estimated price for the control diet of USD 375 and USD 380 for the Varium diet, the return on the cost of adding Varium vs the antibiotic control diet is approximately 4 to 1.

To learn more about improved performance with Varium and how to request a field trial, contact your local Amlan representative.

Targeting Bacterial Quorum Sensing with Mineral-Based Calibrin®-Z

Calibrin®-Z Text with bacteria in the background.

The reduction in antibiotic growth promoter use — due to changing consumer preferences and concern over antimicrobial-resistant pathogens — has required a new approach to managing enteric disease in poultry and livestock. Unlike conventional antibiotics which kill bacteria, the antivirulence approach targets bacterial virulence factors (e.g., quorum sensing) and aims at modifying pathogen behaviors to make them less harmful to the host. The likelihood for multi-drug-resistant bacteria is much less when using this method.

Bacteria Use Quorum Sensing to Communicate

Quorum sensing is one of the antivirulence targets that can be used to help manage bacterial disease. Quorum sensing is a communication system between bacterial cells that involves bacteria releasing biochemicals into the environment which accumulate until reaching a critical threshold concentration.1 When that concentration is reached, changes are triggered inside the bacteria that modify how the bacteria behave.

Quorum sensing controls many bacterial functions including bioluminescence and the release of toxins that damage host cells. Bioluminescence production was one of the first examples of quorum sensing described in bacteria. To learn more about the fascinating bioluminescent species Vibrio fischeri and quorum sensing, watch this TED-Ed video.

Quorum Quenching Disrupts Bacterial Toxin Production

Toxins produced by pathogenic bacteria (e.g., alpha-toxin and NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens) cost animal protein producers billions of dollars each year. However, quorum-quenching products may be a practical method of reducing the negative production and health effects caused by these toxins. Quorum quenching is an approach that disrupts the quorum-sensing system of pathogenic bacteria, preventing cell-to-cell communication and the expression of quorum-sensing-controlled genes that produce toxins and other virulence factors.

Additionally, quorum-quenching products should reduce the chance of antibiotic resistance, since they are modifying bacteria behavior rather than killing them.

Calibrin®-Z has Quorum-Quenching Properties

The mineral-based biotoxin binder Calibrin-Z (available in select international markets) has demonstrated antivirulence attributes that neutralize quorum-sensing signal molecules to reduce the harmful effects of pathogenic bacteria.

A study in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry demonstrated that in vitro, Calibrin-Z separated out quorum-sensing molecules by adsorption or catalytically broke them down into small fragments. By reducing the concentration of quorum-sensing biochemicals, Calibrin-Z potentially disrupts the ability of pathogenic bacteria to produce toxins, since this function is controlled through quorum sensing.

When incubated with Vibrio harveyi, a bacterium that exhibits bioluminescence controlled via quorum signaling, Calibrin-Z reduced bacterial luminescence by 55% (from the area under the curve; Figure 1). The bacterial numbers were not affected (Figure 2), indicating the bioluminescence reduction was achieved through quorum quenching — interfering with quorum sensing — and not by killing bacteria.


Graph showing Luminescence Over Time of Various Doses.
Figure 1: Bacterial luminescence from a Vibrio harveyi culture treated with different concentrations of Calibrin-Z. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) was used as a non-luminescent negative control. At 10 mg/mL, Calibrin-Z reduced bacterial luminescence by 55% (area under the curve).


Graph showing Bacteria Count Over Time of Various Doses.
Figure 2: Treatment with different concentrations of Calibrin-Z did not affect the growth of Vibrio harveyi.


Quenching quorum-sensing molecules is just one of the techniques that can be employed to control pathogens using the antivirulence approach. This is an exciting field that offers animal protein producers effective alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens and their toxins. Visit the Calibrin-Z page to learn more about its biotoxin-binding properties.



  1. Naik SP, Scholin J, Ching S, Chi F, Herpfer M. Quorum Sensing Disruption in Vibrio harveyi Bacteria by Clay Materials. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2018; 66:40-44.

Research Shows NeoPrime® Benefits Swine at Multiple Life Stages

NeoPrime® logo with sow and piglets background.

Weaning is a stressful time for piglets and can have negative impacts on their intestinal environment, overall health and production performance. Multiple studies have shown that improving intestinal health and function with NeoPrime® can help reduce the negative fallback effects of weaning. But what about other times in the pig’s life? Can improving the intestinal health of sows, gilts or pre-weaned piglets with NeoPrime supplementation improve their performance and health?

Here are three case studies that demonstrate the positive effects NeoPrime can have on the fecal microbiota, nursery swine performance, piglet mortality as well as sow and gilt performance and health. These factors help producers drive profits naturally by increasing potential revenue and decreasing the cost of production.

Weaning and NeoPrime Change the Fecal Microbiota

Researchers at a university in Mexico investigated the effects of NeoPrime on select fecal microbial populations when NeoPrime was supplemented both pre- and post-weaning (0 to 56 days-of-age). Sixteen litters of newborn piglets with similar body weight were assigned to either NeoPrime or control treatment groups. Piglets in the NeoPrime group (eight litters) were given two oral doses of NeoPrime (300 mg) in water, the first immediately after birth and the second two hours after consuming colostrum. The same piglets were offered NeoPrime-supplemented creep feed (0.15% w/w) from day 7 until weaning on day 21. The eight control litters received isovolumic sham (water) doses with identical scheduling as the NeoPrime group and were offered non-supplemented creep feed. Previous data showed NeoPrime improved growth performance and decreased diarrhea when fed at weaning. This prompted researchers to administer NeoPrime at birth, using oral doses to ensure that all piglets received a similar initial dose, an off-label use of the product.

At weaning, 100 piglets were distributed to 10 pens/treatment and 5 pigs/pen. Piglets remained in their assigned treatment groups from day 0 to 56. Fecal samples were collected at 21, 35 and 56 days of age to assess fecal populations of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp., and Clostridium perfringens.

Weaning had an overall effect on the fecal microbiota (regardless of treatment), with the abundance of E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. post-weaning (sampled d 35 and d 56) higher (P < 0.05) than during the pre-weaning phase (sampled day 21). Conversely, C. perfringens abundance post-weaning was lower (P <0.05) than the pre-weaning phase (Figure 1).

There was an interactive effect between treatment and growth phase on E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. abundance. NeoPrime significantly reduced the abundance of E. coli compared to the control pre-weaning on day 21 (P < 0.05) and increased (P < 0.05) the Lactobacillus spp. population on day 56 compared to the control (Figure 2). Piglets supplemented with NeoPrime also showed an improvement in weight gain on days 35 and 56 (P = 0.09).

In this study, weaning had a striking effect on the fecal bacterial populations measured. NeoPrime supplementation decreased the negative effects of weaning on performance, which may be partially due to a beneficial modulatory effect on the gut microbiota that promoted beneficial bacteria.

Microbiota effect of each phase chart.
Figure 1: Weaning increased fecal E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. abundance and reduced C. perfringens abundance. Different letters within bacteria species denotes P < 0.05.


E. Coli Interaction Treatment X growth phase chart.
Figure 2: NeoPrime reduced the E. coli population on day 21 and increased Lactobacillus spp. on day 56. Different letters within bacteria species denotes P < 0.05.


NeoPrime Improved Commercial Nursery Swine Performance

A commercial swine operation in Mexico compared the benefits of supplementing nursery pigs with NeoPrime or a competitor product. From 27 to 78 days of age, 2,364 nursery pigs, with an average initial body weight of 8.2 kg, were fed diets supplemented with NeoPrime (1.5 kg/MT) or a competitor product intended to decrease unwanted gut bacteria. Feeding NeoPrime increased final body weight by 5.2 kg and reduced mortality by 1.5% (Figure 3). The cost per kg produced was also improved by using NeoPrime instead of the competitor product (Mex$12.36 vs. $14.87).

NeoPrime® increased body weight and reduced mortality chart.
Figure 3: NeoPrime increased body weight and reduced mortality in commercial nursery pigs.


Benefits of Supplementing Gestation and Farrowing Diets with NeoPrime

A commercial swine farm in Querétaro, Mexico, assessed the benefits of adding NeoPrime to sow gestation and lactation diets (2,400 sows). The farm was experiencing losses from influenza, PRRS and enterotoxigenic E. coli at the time of the study. NeoPrime was supplemented at a rate of 1.5 kg/MT (no other mycotoxin binders or yeast were added) and the results compared to the prior month.

NeoPrime supplemented at the end of pregnancy increased the number of replacement gilts that farrowed (98 vs. 91/110 gilts) which resulted in a substantial increase in potential revenue (Table 1). NeoPrime supplementation from farrowing to weaning also increased the number of sows weaned in good body condition by 6% and reduced sow mortality by 1.31% (Figure 4). Additionally, in sows supplemented with NeoPrime, piglet mortality decreased by 1% and weaning weight increased by 1.05 kg (Figure 5). Lower mortality reduced the cost per piglet by Mex$43.76 (Mex$437.43 vs. 481.19) which amounted to an annual value of approximately Mex$214,000, when accounting for the piglet number increase and the difference in piglet cost.

In this study, NeoPrime improved sow body condition and reduced mortality, which can lead to fewer non-productive sow days, an improved ovulation rate and less cross-fostering in farrowing. NeoPrime also increased potential revenue by increasing the number of gilts retained and reducing piglet mortality, lowering the cost of production per piglet.


Table 1: NeoPrime increased gilt retention by seven gilts, leading to an increase in potential revenue.

NeoPrime increased gilt retention and potential revenue chart.


NeoPrime® improved sow body condition and reduced mortality chart.
Figure 4: NeoPrime improved sow body condition and reduced mortality.


NeoPrime® reduced piglet mortality and improved body weight chart.
Figure 5: Supplementing sows with NeoPrime, reduced piglet mortality and increased piglet weaning weight.


In these case studies, NeoPrime was successful in driving profits naturally for swine producers by increasing revenue potential through reduced mortality, improved performance and reduced cost of production. NeoPrime achieves these effects by reducing the level of pathogenic challenge in the intestine, energizing intestinal epithelial cells and safely stimulating intestinal immunity. To experience the benefits of NeoPrime with your own trial, contact your local Amlan representative.

Calibrin®-Z Improves Broiler Performance Over Other Mycotoxin-Targeting Products

Calibrin®-Z logo and poultry farm infographic.

To prevent mycotoxicosis, poultry diets are often supplemented with feed additives marketed to reduce the toxic effects of dietary mycotoxins. These feed additives are based on a range of key ingredients, including mineral adsorbents (like our biotoxin binder Calibrin®-Z), yeast cell wall preparations, enzyme-based products and algae-based additives. Researchers at Instituto de Soluções Analíticas Microbiológicas e Tecnológicas (SAMITEC, Santa Maria, Brazil) conducted a comparison of these feed additives to determine the best option for maintaining performance when broilers are challenged with mycotoxin-contaminated feed.

Mycotoxin-Challenge Study Compares Commercial Feed Additive Efficacy

In a 21-day feeding challenge, researchers at SAMITEC evaluated the toxic effects of concurrent aflatoxin and fumonisin exposure in broilers. They also compared the effectiveness of various mycotoxin-targeting products, including Calibrin-Z, in reducing those toxic effects. Calibrin-Z undergoes specifically tailored, proprietary thermal processing that promotes the binding of a broad spectrum of biotoxins, including polar and nonpolar mycotoxins. To further help combat enteric disease, Calibrin-Z also binds bacterial exotoxins and endotoxins, such as those produced by Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli.

A total of 540 one-day-old male Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of six treatments (Table 1). Each treatment had nine replicates of 10 chicks per pen. The mycotoxin-challenged diet, which was fed to all treatment groups except the unchallenged control, contained aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 produced by Aspergillus parasiticus, and fumonisin B1 and B2 produced by Fusarium moniliforme. Aflatoxin B1 accounted for 93.8% of the aflatoxin added and fumonisin B1 made up 95.8% of the fumonisin.

Table 1. Mycotoxin-Challenge Study Dietary Treatments by Group

Mycotoxin-Challenge study dietary treatments by group chart.

Calibrin-Z Improves Feed Intake of Mycotoxin-Challenged Broilers

As expected, dietary exposure to aflatoxin and fumonisin reduced feed intake, with broilers consuming the mycotoxin-challenged control diet averaging 14% lower feed intake than the unchallenged control group (P ≤ 0.05, Figure 1). However, Calibrin-Z was able to recover some of this reduced feed intake and averaged 11% greater feed intake than the mycotoxin-challenged control group (P ≤ 0.05). Additionally, Calibrin-Z and the enzyme-based group had similar feed intake and were both greater than the yeast cell wall-based group (P ≤ 0.05). The algae-based group was numerically in between, and not significantly different, to the other product groups.

Feed intake chart in grams.
Figure 1. Feeding Calibrin®-Z in broiler diets contaminated with aflatoxin and fumonisin improved feed intake. Different letters indicate a significant difference between groups (P ≤ 0.05).

Mycotoxin-Challenged Broiler Weight Gain Improved By Calibrin-Z

Exposure to mycotoxin-contaminated feed also reduced broiler weight gain (Figure 2). After 21 days, broilers in the unchallenged control, Calibrin-Z and enzyme-based groups had greater body weight gain compared to the mycotoxin-challenged control group (P ≤ 0.05). Those three groups also had greater weight gain compared to the yeast cell wall- and algae-based groups which were not different to the mycotoxin-challenged control group.

Body weight gain chart for day 0-21.
Figure 2. Feeding Calibrin-Z in broiler diets contaminated with aflatoxin and fumonisin improved body weight gain. Different letters indicate a significant difference between groups (P ≤ 0.05).

Calibrin-Z Shows FCR Improvement Over Other Feed Additives

Broilers in the Calibrin-Z group had a feed conversion ratio (FCR) comparable to the unchallenged control group (P > 0.05) and a significantly better FCR than the yeast cell wall-based and algae-based groups (P ≤ 0.05, see Figure 3).

Feed conversion ratio chart for day 0-21.
Figure 3. Feeding Calibrin-Z in broiler mycotoxin-contaminated diets resulted in a feed conversion ratio similar to the unchallenged control group. Different letters indicate a significant difference between groups (P ≤ 0.05).

Calibrin-Z Proves Its Mycotoxin-Binding Efficacy

In this study, adding Calibrin-Z to mycotoxin-contaminated broiler diets led to greater body weight gain and a superior FCR compared to broilers fed diets containing yeast cell wall- or algae-based products. While there is no statistical difference between Calibrin-Z and enzyme-based products, there is a strong numerical difference between the two, with Calibrin-Z leading in both body weight gain and FCR. Broilers in the Calibrin-Z group had greater body weight gain and improved feed intake compared to broilers in the mycotoxin-challenged control group, and an FCR equivalent to the unchallenged control group.

Calibrin-Z has proved, once again, to be an effective mycotoxin binder that improves the performance of broilers fed mycotoxin-contaminated diets. In addition, Calibrin-Z had performance results that were equal to, or better than, other mycotoxin mitigation products in the market. For more information on this study, or to trial Calibrin-Z yourself, contact us.